casino en ligne fiable:casino,ligne,fiable,锘,The,main:锘?p>(1) The main point of the cognitive school teaching theory The cognitive learning theory frees the teaching from the negative influence of behaviorism, from the emphasis on the knowledge structure and learning results of teaching mater

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锘?p>(1) The main point of the cognitive school teaching theory The cognitive learning theory frees the teaching from the negative influence of behaviorism, from the emphasis on the knowledge structure and learning results of teaching materials to the emphasis on cognitive structure. The internal cognitive processing process, learning strategies and thinking strategies of learning have come up, and the teaching ideas of process center (cognitive process center), structure center (cognitive structure center) and student center (active generation learning) are proposed.

Therefore, the cognitive orientation teaching theory is mainly represented by the student intermediary orientation of teaching for cognitive construction. The main points of this teaching theory are reflected in the following aspects.

(Yao Meilin, Wang Zerong, Lu Hongmei: 'From the change of learning theory to see the development trend of effective teaching', in Journal of Beijing Normal University (Social Science Edition), 2003 (5).) 1. Creation helps Open environment researchers with conceptual understanding and problem solving believe that a simplified and controlled teaching environment is effective in training students' basic skills, but students' understanding may be separated, separated, and disconnected from reality. And the ability to solve problems proficiently is very limited. An effective teaching environment should provide students with opportunities to construct deeper understandings, such as using specific visual and operational specific materials or teaching aids to materialize certain abstract concepts to help students understand concepts.

Afterwards, it is necessary to combine the reality and let the students apply the concepts they have learned to solve the problem. Computer technology can also be used to provide students with interactive, open physical environments or simulated situations, enabling students to conduct practical operations, observations, etc. through human-computer interaction, various phenomena and the principles and laws embodied therein. Wait for a more accurate, comprehensive and in-depth understanding. 2. Providing an organized course content that is in line with the level of cognitive development and is conducive to ability formation. Compared with the teacher-centered teaching, the student-oriented teaching not only pays attention to the content and structure of the course, but also pays attention to students. Construct the problem of the corresponding cognitive structure. Researchers believe that students can understand what they are learning about their level of cognitive development and existing experience. It is impossible for a student to master the expertise of a subject by rote memorization or simply copying. Instead, it must be constructed through its own actual activities and experiences, otherwise the course can only be a course written by an expert, not a course used by a student. Even if some knowledge is copied in the mind, they can only be inert and rigid. Therefore, the researchers oppose the direct teaching of the curriculum, and believe that individuals must construct understanding through active observation and exploration. This requires that the content of the course provided can not be too difficult, destructive, and not easy. It should focus on the original level of development, but focus on the student's recent development zone, using the teaching strategies of the first organizer to make the course content and students The level of cognitive development is compatible with existing experience and acceptable. The real construction of cognitive structure takes time, which means that trying to master a large amount of course content is unrealistic and does not necessarily produce meaningful learning outcomes. To this end, the researchers have proposed the principle of being small and precise, that is, thoroughly learning the right amount of important knowledge is far more valuable and efficient than learning a large amount of things in a shallow and superficial way. Therefore, educators need to identify, select, and reasonably organize productive, migrating knowledge points and integrate them into organized curriculum content. The content of the course should include concepts such as concepts and principles, as well as learning strategies and thinking skills such as self-management, metacognition, problem solving, reasoning, and reading comprehension. 3. Extensive and expressive evaluation of students' cognitive ability and development level. Researchers believe that students' true ability and cognitive development level are often reflected in solving complex and comprehensive problems. It is sometimes difficult to objectively and truly reflect the level of students by evaluating multiple choice questions and short answer questions. Therefore, it is necessary to expand in time and space to allow students to engage in larger tasks or activities that take days, weeks, or semester to complete, and such activities are not completed in the classroom. Need to expand beyond the classroom, off-campus, and sometimes need to work with others. Through the various actual performances of students in completing such activities, the students' comprehensive understanding and problem-solving ability are evaluated comprehensively and objectively, that is, the performance and authenticity are evaluated. In order to improve the accuracy of the assessment, the researchers also recommend using multimedia equipment such as video, audio or computer, or using a growth record bag to comprehensively and objectively record the abilities and activities that are difficult to display and examine in paper and pencil tests, such as students. Oral reports, interactions with other students, actual operational activities, etc., in order to have an accurate understanding and evaluation of the development and progress of students in all aspects of the learning process. In short, cognitive teaching theory emphasizes student-centeredness and the formation of cognitive ability. The teacher's teaching behavior can not directly control the students' learning outcomes, but through the intermediary process of students' cognition, attitude, self-regulation, etc. The cognitive structure and cognitive processing process in the learner's mind is directly affecting the students' learning outcomes. Key factor. That is to say, in the teaching process, students are not passively controlled by teachers, but actively process information and construct understanding. Therefore, modern teaching must presuppose the cognitive rules in the minds of learners when creating the external conditions of learning; it must change the traditional teaching methods and give full play to the main role of students; students must be trained to become independent and independent learners; Attention must be paid to the role of students' internal cognitive motivation. (2) The main forms of cognitive teaching theory 1. Bruner's structural teaching concept Brunner's structuralist teaching reform movement advocated in the 1950s and 1960s has had a wide-ranging influence internationally. He advocates that the ultimate goal of teaching is to promote students' understanding of the basic structure of the discipline. Structure refers to the basic structure of knowledge. The basic structure of a discipline refers to the basic concepts and basic principles of a discipline. Bruner believes that if the organization of the textbook lacks structure or the students lack the basic knowledge of cognitive structure, it is impossible to find learning. Therefore, Bruner puts the basic structure of the discipline at the center of the design curriculum and the preparation of textbooks. He pointed out: (1) structured textbooks are easy for students to understand; (2) structured textbooks will be maintained for a long time and will not be forgotten; (3) the principle principles learned by students from the structure will help In the future, positive migration will occur in similar situations; (4) Principle principles learned from structural knowledge will help students to develop their ability to understand and master the knowledge in order to obtain a higher level of knowledge. Bruner also proposed four teaching principles that master the basic structure of the discipline. (1) The principle of motivation. Bruner believes that internal motivation is the basic driving force for learning. Students have three basic intrinsic motivations: curious internal drive (ie, curiosity), competent internal drive (ie, successful desire), and reciprocal drive (ie, the need for coexistence between people). If teachers are good at promoting students' inquiry activities, they can stimulate their intrinsic motivation and effectively achieve the predetermined learning goals. (2) Structural principles. Any knowledge structure can be represented by three representations of actions, images and symbols. The action representation is learning by means of action without the help of language; the image representation is learning by means of representation, based on the perceptual material; the symbol representation is learning by means of language, and once the experience is converted into language, the logical derivation can be carried out. As for which kind of presentation is chosen, it depends on the student's knowledge background and the nature of the topic. (3) Procedural principles. Teaching is to guide students through a series of methods that state a problem or a large amount of knowledge in an orderly manner to improve their ability to master, transform and migrate their knowledge. There are usually different programs in each subject. For learners, they are difficult and there is no single procedure for all learners. (4) Strengthening principles. The intensive time and pace of teaching regulations are an important part of learning success. Know that the results should be at the moment when the student evaluates his or her homework. Knowing that the results are too early will prevent students from exploring the activities; knowing that the results are too late will make them lose the opportunity to be helped. 2. Ausubel's assimilation teaching theory On the basis of its meaningful acceptance of learning theory, Ausubel put forward the theory of assimilation teaching with gradual differentiation and comprehensive integration, that is, the teaching should follow the general to individual, and then present concrete The material reorganizes the teaching order of the cognitive structure elements of students, and proposes the teaching strategies of the first organizers. (1) Gradual differentiation and comprehensive teaching materials present principles. Ausubel believes that it is less difficult to grasp the differentiation from the known comprehensive knowledge of the whole package than to grasp the overall knowledge from the known differentiation. Therefore, the order in which the textbooks are presented should first be taught the most general and most widely-conceived concepts, and then gradually differentiate them according to the specific details. This is the principle of gradual differentiation. If you organize and systematically arrange textbooks in accordance with this principle in teaching, you may have the best learning and retention effects. The so-called comprehensive through refers to the process of reorganizing and correlating existing ideas in the cognitive structure in the upper learning and the parallel combination learning. Ausubel believes that teaching should analogize, analyze, compare and synthesize new knowledge through the existing knowledge in the cognitive structure of students. Students should be guided to explore the connection between concepts, point out their similarities and differences, and thus clarify old and new knowledge. The difference and connection; if teaching can't make students integrate their own cognitive structure, students will often separate the old and new knowledge, make the new concepts and propositions become isolated entities, and thus learn mechanically through the examination. (2) Promote the teaching strategy of the advance organizer. In order to realize the gradual differentiation and comprehensive integration of teaching, Ausubel proposed the advanceorganizer teaching strategy. Organizers are a guiding material that is presented in a meaningful learning process. Since these materials are usually introduced before the presentation of the teaching content itself, it is also known as the lead organizer. Ausubel believes that the organizer should have a higher level of abstraction and envelopment than the learning task itself; at the same time, it can be mastered by the students and stated in the language they are familiar with. The main function of the advance organizer is to bridge the gap between old and new knowledge before the students can meaningfully accept the new content, even if the new knowledge is clearly linked with the original knowledge, and the recognition of meaningful new knowledge is provided. Know the frame or fixation point. Advance organizers can be divided into declarative organizers and comparative organizers. When students are completely new to new knowledge, teachers can use declarative organizers to communicate the relationship between old and new knowledge to provide the most appropriate category for new learning; when students are familiar with new knowledge, teachers provide comparative organizations. In order to help students understand the similarities and differences between old and new knowledge in advance, and enhance the discernibility between old and new knowledge, in order to facilitate the learning of new knowledge. Ausubel insists that no matter how the teaching content is arranged, the use of appropriate advance organizers will certainly promote meaningful learning and retention for most students.

3. Gagne's Guiding Learning Teaching Theory Gagne combines connectionism with cognitive ideas, and uses the ideas and methods of modern information processing theory to establish a guiding learning teaching theory through a lot of experimental research. Measurement and evaluation of teaching objectives, teaching processes, teaching methods and teaching results.

([Beautiful] Gagne: 'The Conditions and Teaching Theory of Learning', 13-15 pages, Shanghai, East China Normal University Press, 1999.

) First, Gagne believes that teachers are the designers and managers of teaching, and also the assessors of student learning.

The result of student learning is the goal of teaching, which is manifested in five kinds of wisdom skills, cognitive strategies, verbal information, motor skills and attitudes; each subject must follow the five learning results to formulate specific teaching. Goals, and statements must be specific, observable, and measurable.

Secondly, he believes that teaching is a set of external events designed to support the inner learning phase.

According to the information processing model of learning and memory, he divides the complete teaching process into nine stages corresponding to the information processing process of learning, that is, attracting attention, informing the target, prompting to recall the original knowledge, presenting the teaching materials, and providing Learn to guide, lead homework, provide feedback, evaluate assignments and promote retention and migration; and elaborate on the conditions for effective teaching.

So in his teaching system, teachers can choose the most appropriate teaching method based on the type of learning outcomes determined in the teaching objectives and the learning phase in which a certain type of learning is at that time.

Finally, Gagne presented a series of principles and techniques for instructional design.

He believes that teaching is the process in which teachers create appropriate external conditions for learning based on their internal learning conditions and different types of learning outcomes, and promote effective learning to achieve the desired teaching goals.

The main components of instructional design are: (1) designing observable and measurable operational objectives; and (2) identifying appropriate educational events for selected objectives.

((1979),: HoltRinehartandWinston, -322.).

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