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2016 Spring Eighth Grade Languages 鈥嬧€媀olume 25 'Meng Zi' Two Chapters Teaching Plan Lu Education Edition Download 2016 Spring Eight Years Languages 鈥嬧€媀olume 25 Lessons 'Mencius' Two Chapters Teaching Plan Lu Jiao Version of 'Meng Zi' two chapters teaching objectives knowledge objectives 1. Accumulate knowledge of classical Chinese and master the phenomenon of the use of ancient and modern synonyms and words. 2. Understand the characteristics of 'Meng Zi' prose and understand Mencius's political ideas.

3. Reciting two short essays and accumulating famous sayings. Ability goal 1. Repeated reading, understanding the meaning of the text, and cultivating students' self-learning ability in classical Chinese.

2. Learn the methods of the ancients to say the theory, the comparison of taste, the ratio of the ratio of rhetoric expression.

Medical goal 1. Understand the 'daytime' geographical advantage, 'human harmony' and 'successful help', and enhance the understanding of the political situation of national stability and unity, 2. Understand the meaning of 'born in sorrow, dying in happiness'. And learn from it, enhance the sense of urgency, and treat life with optimism.

Key points of teaching: clarify the ideas of argumentation and grasp the method of reasoning. Difficulties in teaching: Correctly understand the significance of the times of 'getting more help' and 'born in worry'. Teaching method 1. The key to learning classical Chinese in reading is to read. Especially for literary articles like Mencius, reading is especially important. Through different reading methods, students can be guided to read the text and read the momentum and beauty of the stagnation. 2. Discussion point dialing method 3. Competition Law 4. Comparative teaching aids preparation: multimedia class schedule: 2 hours of teaching process, the first lesson [teaching points] data reading; teachers and students jointly study 'Get more help, helpless, help', read the text, overall perception: translation of the text, accumulation of classical Chinese Knowledge, grasp the meaning of the text, clarify the rational thinking, grasp the method of reasoning, taste the language: extend and expand, deepen the understanding of the article's point of view. [Teaching Steps] I. Introduction to the design of the students, everyone still remembers the magnificent news 'The People's Liberation Army, a million troops crossed the Yangtze River'? What is the reason for the victory of the West Road Army? (Students are answered; 'The people who win the hearts of the people will get the world.' Today, we learn 'Get more help, helpless and helpless' and deeply explore the primary conditions for defeating the enemy. Second, the data helped Mencius and Mencius Mencius (372 BC ~ 289 BC), Zou Ren, is the re-transmission of Confucius's Sun Kong. Lobbying between Qi Liang, not being reused, retired and his disciples Gongsun ugly, Wan Zhang and other books. Inheriting Confucius's doctrine, and speaking of benevolence and righteousness, proposing the slogan of 'Benevolence', advocating the restoration of the 'Jingtian system' and the Shiqing system, while at the same time advocating that 'the people are expensive, the king is light', and that the tyrant is 'one husband', that the human nature is good Emphasis on the cultivation of inner peace and self-cultivation, and become the foundation of the psychology of the Song agent. After the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the status of the Japanese respect, the Yuan to Shun Yuan years is the Zou Guoya Shenggong, Ming Jiajing nine years as the 'Asian Mencius', in Confucianism its status is second only to Confucius. Most of the thoughts and deeds are found in the book Mencius. The article 'Mencius' has always been eloquently known. Reading Mencius is awesome, and the feelings are agile and unstoppable. Out of the indignation of the ruthless and brutal acts of the then ruling party and the sympathy of the people struggling in the suffering, the hostility towards other schools, and the implementation of themselves. The strong desire to advocate, and the sense of responsibility for salvation, 'If you want to rule the world, the world today, and whoever gives me everything,' Mencius's article is eager, determined, and sturdy, and is good at using various methods to seduce the enemy. Adding the above words and spreading the words, when the time is sharp and sharp, I like to use a large series of squaring sentences, so the pen is aggressive. Third, read the text, the overall perception 1. The teacher plays the demonstration tape, the students listen, pay attention to the word sound, pause, accent. 2. The teacher demonstrates reading the text and pays attention to reading the momentum of the article. 3. The students read the text and the teacher gave a little reading instruction. Pay attention to the rhythm of the sentence, such as: the domain of the people / not to the border of the border, the country / not the risk of / mountain stream, Wei Tianxia / not / the benefits of the military. Winners / help, losers / helpless. Widowed / to the relatives, relatives / shores: more help / to the world, the world / smooth. Fourth, translating the text, grasping the meaning of the text 1. The students translate the texts themselves, circle the sketches, and mark the difficult words. 2. Panel discussion, questioning, and disambiguation. 3. Teachers guide students to accumulate knowledge of classical Chinese. The teacher distributes the texts and the contents are as follows: (1) Passing the false words: the helplessness, the relatives (the 'rebellion', betrayal) (2) the ancient and the modern words Sanli City, the seven-story Guo (city, inner city ; Guo: Outer City) Fortunately (to leave. Today: go, to) relatives (relatives and friends, including parents and brothers. Today refers to the family or its members who have a marriage relationship with their family.) Also (the moat. This refers to the pond.) (3) The word polysemy: The different usages of the word 'zhi' are not in the bounds of the border of the country (by) the ring of the city of Sanli (the pronoun) With the help of the world, use the world to help, the world goes to (to) (4) pay attention to the following use of the word: the domain is not bound by the border (nouns used as verbs, restrictions), the country does not take the mountain stream The danger (adjectives used as verbs to consolidate) Wei Tianxia does not take advantage of the military (adjectives are used as verbs, deterrence) (5) pay attention to the translation of the following sentences; the weather is not as good as the land, the land is not as good as the people and (good for combat) Weather, seasonality, can not match the geographical situation that is conducive to combat: the geographical situation that is conducive to combat. The people in the battle are in the heart and internal unity.) When the husband and the ring attack, there must be a heavenly person, but the invincible is not as good as the heavens. The weather and seasons of combat are not, but they cannot win. This is because the weather and the seasons that are conducive to combat are not comparable to the geographical situation that is conducive to combat.) With the smoothness of the world, the attack on relatives and the shackles, so the gentleman has no war. The war will win. (With the conditions of the people all over the world to go to him, to attack the prince who is opposed by the relatives, so the monarch does not fight, the war will certainly win.) Fifth, think about the text, rational Clear arguments and reciting the text 1. The central argument of this paper is how the article is clear about how the arguments are carried out layer by layer: the central argument is that 鈥渢he weather is not as good as the land, and the land is not as good as the people鈥? The article introduces the arguments and points out that the human being is the primary condition for the defeat of the enemy. It is carried out layer by layer, and it is proved by a generalized case. The factors played a different role in the war, and then the 'human harmony' in the war introduced the truth of governing the country and the state, and concluded that 'there is more help, less help,' and clarifies the essence of 'human harmony.' More help 'the world goes smoothly'; finally, 'multi-help' and 'widowed' are compared, naturally exporting 'the gentleman has no war, the war will win.' The teacher forms a memorable idea based on the student's answer to the board. 2. Student basis The book reminder, recite the text. Sixth, sum up the teacher of the sublimation, 'Six Jing notes me, I note the six classics', learn the classical Chinese, pay attention to the connection with reality, the ancient for the present, give the classic works the meaning of the times; for the 'human harmony' How do you know, please contact the actual, talk about your views. Student discussion. Health 1: I think that 'human harmony' is a gang of gangs, and you can't see them. In the world, you can do things well. Health 2: Some anti-China forces in Japan have arbitrarily falsified history textbooks. As a result, they have unanimously opposed the people of insight at home and abroad, and they have become rebellious. They have responded to the old saying of Mencius, 'Getting more help, losing helplessness.' Health 3: Mencius's claim emphasizes that doing anything must be in line with the people's heart and reflect the vision of Mencius in the specific stage of historical development. However, it should also be noted that Mencius proposed 'human harmony', whose fundamental purpose is to safeguard the interests of the ruling class, which makes his point of view inevitably have the limitations of the times. Health 4: I think that the victory or defeat of war depends on the nature of war and the back of the people. 'Wei Tianxia' cannot rely on 'daytime' and can only rely on: the theory of 'human harmony' can only be applied to the ancient science of underdevelopment. Society. In today's high-tech development, if you want to win, you must have the most advanced weapons, and the rest are secondary. The US-Iraq war is not a good example. Health 5: Power can only be rampant, absolutely It is impossible to traverse the world. The political pattern of the world has developed to this day. Although the developed countries in Europe and the United States are still relatively dominant, we can see that the hegemonic status of the great powers is already in the middle of the river. Is it moral in the operation of world politics? It is becoming the norm for dealing with the relationship between the state and the country, between the nation and the nation. 'Getting more help, losing help and helping others' will become an important concept in the 21st century that dominates the world political situation. Health 6: In today's society, what is 'moral' What is not 'righteous'? The teacher is clear, maybe it can be answered like this. First, it is in line with the principle of equality between the state and the state. It is said that the country, regardless of size, wealth, strength or weakness, should participate in international affairs under the principle of equality. Second, it is conducive to maintaining peaceful coexistence. This is in view of the fact that the war of the 20th century has brought humanity to society; Avoiding war is crucial to the development of human society in the 21st century. The Chinese Confucianism, which is 鈥渉elpful, helpless, and helpless鈥? is valued as a valuable resource. Health 4: I feel that war is the winner Depending on the nature of the war and the back of the people, 'the world can not rely on the 'time of heaven' advantage, but can only rely on: the theory of 'human harmony' can only be applied to ancient societies with underdeveloped science. In today's high-tech development, if you want to win, you must have the most advanced weapons, and the rest are secondary. The US-Iraq war is not a good example. Health 5: Power can only be rampant, it is impossible to cross the world. The political pattern of the world has developed to this day. Although the developed countries in Europe and the United States are still in a dominant position, we can see that the hegemonic status of the big countries is already in the middle of the river. Whether or not morality is in the operation of world politics is becoming the norm for dealing with the relationship between the state and the country, between the nation and the nation. 'Getting more help, losing help and helping others' will become an important concept in the 21st century that dominates the world political structure. Health 6: In today's society, what is 鈥渞ighteous鈥?and what is not 鈥渞ighteous鈥? The teacher is clear and may answer this question. First, it conforms to the principle of equality between the state and the state, that is, the country is small or small. Wealth, strength and weakness should all participate in international affairs under the principle of equality. Second, it is conducive to maintaining peaceful coexistence. This is in view of the fact that the war of the 20th century has brought humanity to society; society has brought enormous disasters, maintained peace, and avoided war. The development of human society is crucial. The Chinese Confucianism of 'helping others, helping others, and helping others' is valued as a valuable resource. Seven, arrange the operation 1, recite the full text. 2. Organize the class to speak and write a post-reading feeling. The second lesson [teaching points] students self-read 'born in sorrow, died in peace', teachers design related issues to guide students to self-read, help students understand the meaning of the text, clear the arguments, recite the text; extend the expansion, summarize the sublimation: compare Read and grasp the artistic characteristics of the essays of Mencius. [Teaching Steps] I. Introduction and Design of Leads (1) Everyone is familiar with the story of 鈥渞ewarding and daring鈥? Yue Wang Goujian was determined to be in the midst of adversity, and finally defeated Wu Guo and revived the country; however, after this, 'Yue Wang Gou broke Wu Gui, the soldiers returned home. The palace girl was like a full spring temple, but only now.' . The more the king who indulged in the peace of mind, repeated the same mistakes. What kind of revelation does the experience of Wang Goujian give us? Please go into the section of 'Mengzi路Fee' to find the answer. Design (2) A nature reserve in Alaska in the United States originally coexisted with deer and wolves. In order to protect the deer from being eaten by wolves, people drove away the wolves. Unexpectedly, in the 'and peace and tranquility' environment of the deer, you are no longer rushing and running, and the physical condition has dropped significantly. Soon, many deer died. People have to 'please' the wolf back, and soon the deer are full of vitality. When the students listened to this story, what kind of feelings would they have? (Student answers 鈥渂orn in sorrow, died in peace鈥? teacher鈥檚 book title.) Second, reading the text, overall perception 1. Students read the text. It is required to read the quasi-words, read the pauses, and read the momentum and beauty of the swaying. 2. The teacher plays a demonstration tape, prompting the student to grasp the pause and accent in the sentence. Multimedia display: (1) 鑸?/ hair in / 鐣?acres, Fu said / lift / between the build, glue / lift / fish salt, Guan Yiwu / lift in / Shi, Sun Shuzhen / lift /娴?鐧鹃噷濂?涓惧湪/甯? (2) ... must first bitter / its mind, labor / its bones, hungry / its body, lack of space / its body, beggar / chaos / what it is, so tempted / endurance, Zeng Yi / what it can not.

3. The student read the text aloud.

Three, clear the arguments of argumentation, recite the lesson 1. The students self-read the text, combined with the notes, and translated the texts with the aid of the reference book.

2. The group discussed the exchange and answered the difficult questions in the translation.

3. The whole class is divided into two groups to start the class competition.

Multimedia display: The first section: knowledge of classical Chinese (1) read the following words.

1 鐣? 2 Fu said 3 plastic 楝?4 lines 鎷?(2) indicate the following words in the following sentence and explain.

1 Zeng Yi could not be 2 trapped in the heart, balanced, and then 3 into the family can not be a gentleman 4 so tempted (3) translated sentences.

1The day will be reduced to a big man, then people are also ... Zeng Yi can not.

Two people have been continually...the color is pronounced in the sound.

If you enter 3, you will not be a gentleman, but you will be invincible.

4 Then I know that I was born in sorrow and died in peace.

Second section: Ideological content (1) The central argument of this article is which two aspects of the author's arguments. Please briefly describe the argumentation of this article.

(2) What is the characteristic of this short argument in the argumentation method? The third section: Talent Show (1) 'born in worry, died in happiness', you know which famous sentences are the same as this meaning, please list two sentences .

(2) Please tell us a few examples of which cases can prove this.

The results of the student classroom competition: About the content of the thought: (1) The central argument of this article is 'born in sorrow, died in happiness.'

The author argues from both the individual and the state.

The article first talks about the issue of creating talent.

Firstly, six talented people who have been born and squandered and finally become 'big servants' have taken the example of talents to create talents in a difficult environment. At the same time, they attach importance to the subjective factors of human beings and put forward 'trapped in the heart. Balance the considerations and then make the point of view.

In two ways, people must make a difference and achieve great cause. They must undergo hardship and even painful tempering in life, thought, and behavior.

Then, the individual said the country, pointing out that the factors that determine the survival of the country are similar to the factors that can make a great achievement for the individual, and finally put forward the argument.

(2) This short argument uses argumentation methods such as analogy argumentation, case argumentation, comparative argumentation, and inductive argumentation.

If you compare the talents with the governance of the country, such as the six examples of talented people in the adversity, such as comparing the achievements of great men with the country's demise, such as analysis and argumentation, post-induction ideas and so on.

The talent show: (1) The related famous sentences are: Since the ancient heroes have been hard to beat, they have never been a man.

Thinking of the danger is the peace of mind, thinking of chaos is the rule of law, and thinking of death is the case.

Worry can rejuvenate the country, and Yiyu can die.

Tian Xingjian, the gentleman is self-improving.

Self-improvement is the health of the world, Zhigang is the way of the Majesty.

(2) Related examples include: Li Baicheng, the leader of the peasant uprising at the end of the Ming Dynasty, led the army to enter the city of Beijing. He was full of enthusiasm and ultimately failed. This is a true portrayal of 'born in sorrow and died in peace'.

Someone did an experiment, throwing a frog into boiling water, and the frog jumped out.

The frog was placed in a gentle boiling water, and the frog was happy to stay in it. The temperature gradually rose and the frog slowly adapted, and finally it was boiled to death.

This is also a portrayal of 'born in sorrow, dying in happiness.'

The best-selling book, 'Who Moved My Cheese,' also explains the truth of 'born in sorrow, dying in happiness.'

Fourth, summarizing the sublimation question: Studying 'born in sorrow, dying in peace', what kind of enlightenment students have you discussed.

Results: The two problems mentioned in Mencius's essays still have valuable enlightening significance for us: First, the issue of talent creation.

Mencius emphasized two aspects on this issue.

On the one hand, he emphasized that the talents that he entered were formed in the hardships of hardship and hardship, and grew.

As a 'big man', you must first experience some hardships such as 'bitterness', 'labor' and 'hungry' before you can grow your talents and take on this responsibility.

Can't be born. However, it鈥檚 easy to grow up, and it鈥檚 natural to grow up.

Become from tempering.

On the other hand, he pointed out that the entry must be able to withstand the test of setbacks and difficulties, and rise up in frustration, so that it will make a difference.

Frustration and distress, invigorating the spirit, working hard, exerting subjective initiative, can only rush out of the predicament, do not open up the face; if you are lost, if you don鈥檛 feel bad, you will naturally sink.

Become a struggle.

One is about the governance of the country.

Mengzi pointed out that having a sage, adopting a shackle, staying alert, and being in danger for a country is extremely important to a country, which is related to the survival of the country.

The thought of Mencius has far-reaching significance.

Imagine that if a country is guilty of treacherousness, fortunately for power, indulge in happiness, and loses vigilance, then its future fate is conceivable.

V.Comparative reading, grasp the logic and literary grace of the 'Mencius' prose. Logic - a layer of in-depth argumentation.

'Getting more help, getting helpless' starts from the perspective of war.

Explaining the role of people and the decision-making of war by comparing the three conditions of time, place, people, and these three conditions, and then introducing the extension, and introducing the assertion of 'getting more help, losing helplessness' and clarifying the implementation. The importance of benevolence.

The short form of the structure of 'short--separation-explanation-conclusion' embodies the author's point-to-face, from individual to general logic, making the article very convincing and appealing.

And 'born in sorrow, dying in happiness' first enumerates the examples of six historical figures, and then pushes 'similar people' similar to this, from individual to general, clarifying that talents are tempered in a difficult environment. Then, from personal inference to governance, and finally to the full text of the argument.

The author's logical thinking is externalized as a 'layered' structure.

2. Taste the linguistic features of 'Mengzi' prose: these two short essays are magnificent and powerful, and they are extremely persuasive and appealing. This is not unrelated to Mencius's use of rhetoric.

Chapter 1 'The city is not high, the pool is not deep.

The military revolution is not conducive, and the millet is not much.' It is double negation.

The ratio is strong; 'the domain is not based on ... the country is not ... the world is not ... ...' layer-by-layer ratio, more momentum.

Chapter 2 begins with a list of historical figures. Naturally, it uses side-by-side comparisons; while 'people are always over...' is a sentence-style comparison.

It is obvious that Mencius said that the prose is good at using the ratio, and that the sentence is flexible and the form is diverse, which not only adds an imposing manner to the article, but also gives people a sense of beauty.

In the two short essays, the famous sayings are repeated, and the sentence is neat. Expressive meaning.

The brilliance of philosophical light.

Six, the class summary 'Mengzi' two chapters, pens and sharp, language sharp, magnificent, good at reasoning, diverse techniques. The argument is strict.

These characteristics have many guiding effects and reference significance for us to read and write papers today.

Mengzi鈥檚 political thoughts still have some lessons for us living in the 21st century.

'Three thousand weak waters, only one drink', I hope that everyone will understand and understand, and learn something.


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