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锘?p>2018 ninth grade physics booklet teaching version practice: 'heat engine efficiency' data download 2018 ninth grade physics book man teaches version practice: 'heat engine efficiency' section 2 heat engine Efficiency new course standard training (9 points total) 1. (2') (Nanchang) It is known that the calorific value of alcohol is q mass m, then the heat released by half of the alcohol is completely burned, and the calorific value of the remaining alcohol. 2. (2') Regarding the concept of calorific value, the correct one in the following statement is () A. Any object has a heating value B. When the fuel burns, there is a calorific value C. The calorific value of the fuel is independent of whether the fuel is completely combusted. The calorific value of the fuel that emits a lot of heat when burning is 3. (2') (路 Neijiang) It is known that the calorific value of bituminous coal is 脳107J/kg, then () A.2kg bituminous coal must be released with a heat of 脳107J B.1kg. When the bituminous coal is completely burned, it can release the heat of 脳107J. The temperature of the bituminous coal is lowered by 1 掳C. The heat value of the bituminous coal released by 脳107J is 脳108J/kg4. (2') (路Yiyang) Regarding the efficiency of the heat engine, the following is correct. () A. The efficiency of the heat engine may be equal to 1B. The efficiency of the heat engine must be less than 1C. The higher the efficiency of the heat engine, the more energy it loses.
D. The higher the efficiency of the heat engine, the greater the impact on the environment. 5. (1') (Tianjin) The energy loss of an internal combustion engine is roughly the same: the heat loss of the cylinder is 25%, and the energy taken by the exhaust gas is 30%. Mechanical loss such as friction accounts for 10%, and its mechanical efficiency is.
New Curriculum Standards Training (23 points total) 6. (2') (STS test questions) The main harmful components contained in the fuel exhaust emissions are () A. Carbon monoxide B. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides C Dust D. Carbon dioxide 7. (2') (Innovative Practice Questions) Thermal power stations are used to supply heat. Compared with general thermal power stations, thermal power stations have greatly improved 8. (2') (conceptual analysis) fuel combustion The amount of heat released () A. Only related to the type of fuel B. Only related to the quality of the fuel C. Only related to whether the fuel is completely burnt D. Related to the above three factors 9. (2') can be explained An example of what can be converted into mechanical energy is () A. The ice is melted by heat. Stone thrown vertically Beat the iron block to make it hot. Water vapor flushing the lid 10. (1') (路Shenyang) (Reading comprehension questions) In recent years, Shenyang City has adopted a method of centralized heating in residential areas, removing more than a thousand chimneys and reducing the high-temperature exhaust gas to the surrounding atmosphere. Diffusion and its heat transfer to the atmosphere reduce pollution to the atmosphere, improve fuel utilization, and reduce energy loss. According to the above, please find a physical related term 11. (4') ( STS test questions) Some spacecraft rocket engines use hydrogen as fuel, which is because hydrogen is very large; burning 1m3 of gas can release heat 脳 107J, a city's pipeline gas charging standard is yuan / m3, there is a household within a month The burning gas consumes 脳108J of heat, and this month should pay the gas fee. 12(4') (integrated in the discipline) It is known that the calorific value of alcohol is 脳107J/kg. When boiling water at standard atmospheric pressure with an alcohol stove, boil a pot of water at 20 掳C with 50g of alcohol, set alcohol completely. Burning, and 40% of the heat released by the water, the quality of the pot of water. 13. (6') (STS test questions) A school needs to boil 1000kg and 20掳C water for teachers and students to drink every day. (1) What is the calorie required to boil water every day? (2) If coal and gas are used separately Natural gas is used as fuel. According to the knowledge in the textbook and the experience in your life, it is briefed on which fuel is used in the above three fuels to the most polluted atmosphere and what is its main pollutants in the atmosphere. (38 points total) 14. (2') (路Lanzhou) (production application) A diesel engine, when Mkg diesel is completely burned, releasing 脳108J of heat, it is necessary to lose the energy of 脳108J, it is known that the efficiency of the diesel engine is () A. 30%%%%15.(2') (STS test questions) The following measures are not part of the global warming effect of the earth () A. Modern industry burns a lot of coal and oil B. Humans deforestation a lot C. Plant photosynthesis on carbon dioxide A large amount of consumption D. Human activities such as heating and other activities are increasingly frequent 16. (4') (Changzhou) (practical application questions) diesel engine is a common heat engine used in industrial and agricultural production, the efficiency of a certain type of diesel engine is known to be 30%, The complete combustion of 2kg diesel in the diesel engine can release heat J, and the heat can be used to make useful work through the conversion of the diesel engine. J. (The calorific value of diesel is 脳107J/kg) 17. (2') (路Shenyang) Comprehensive) The following mistakes in the description of energy conversion are: () A. When the rice cooker is working, the electric energy is converted into internal energy B. The gasoline engine performs the power stroke, and the mechanical energy is converted into the internal energy C. When the electric motor vehicle is driven, the electric energy is converted. For the photosynthesis of mechanical energy D. green plants, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy 18. (1') (Jiaxing) (STS test questions) April 22-26, the Lyra meteor broke into the earth at a speed of 49km / s The atmosphere forms the 'Tianqin meteor shower' When a meteor enters the atmosphere, it rubs against the air. In this process, the energy that causes the meteor to illuminate is transformed by (filling in 'chemical energy', 'mechanical energy' or 'solar energy'). 19. (4') (integrated in the discipline) A diesel engine with a power of 9kW consumes 2kg of diesel per hour during normal operation. What is the efficiency of the diesel engine? (The calorific value of diesel is 脳107J/kg) 20. 6') (Reading Comprehension Questions) Urumqi is one of the most polluted cities in the country. From October 15th to April 15th of the following year, in the heating period of half a year, it is spread throughout the city and suburbs. Thousands of large and small boilers will be fired at the same time. Eight million tons of coal will be burned every year, more than 60,000 tons of soot will be emitted into the sky, and more than 90,000 tons of sulfur dioxide will be distributed to the capital of 2 million citizens. People can get 3 kilograms of soot, kilograms of sulfur dioxide and other 'gifts' from the air, plus nearly 10,000 taxis, the exhaust from the bus... The city government and the environmental protection department have made great efforts and introduced many policy. If you are a small environmental guardian, what reasonable suggestions would you make to improve this situation, and the capital is a blue sky? (At least three) 21.(8') (Reading research questions) Reading and thinking about the greenhouse effect China is one of the sensitive and vulnerable areas of climate change in the world.
There are many reasons for the changes in the climate system. In summary, they can be divided into two categories: natural climate fluctuations and human activities. The former includes changes in solar radiation, volcanic eruptions, etc. The latter include human burning fossil fuels and increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by deforestation, changes in sulphide aerosol concentrations, changes in land cover and land use, etc. Human activities increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and cause climate The study of change dates back to the end of the 19th century. In 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante. Alhnis made predictions that coal burning may change the Earth's climate. He pointed out that when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere doubles, the global average temperature will increase by 5-6 掳C. After that, many scientists have studied this issue one after another. In 1957, Revela et al. published a paper in the United States on increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that may produce climate change. In the same year, the US Hawaii Observatory began to conduct carbon dioxide concentration observations, thus officially unveiling the prelude to human research on climate change. The greenhouse effect is at the heart of this topic. It means that carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere pass through the short-wave radiation of the sun, causing the surface of the earth to heat up, but blocking the surface of the earth to emit long-wave radiation into the space, thereby warming the atmosphere. Since the role of carbon dioxide and other gases is similar to that of the 'greenhouse', it is called the 'greenhouse effect', and the gas such as carbon dioxide is called 'greenhouse gas'. Before the industrial revolution, the 'greenhouse effect' caused by gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused the average temperature of the earth's surface to rise from 18 掳C to 15 掳C, which is now adapted to natural ecosystems and humans. Once the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere continues to increase, it further blocks Long-wave radiation emitted by the Earth to the space, in order to maintain the radiation balance, the ground will increase the temperature to increase the long-wave radiation. When the ground temperature increases, the water vapor will increase (increasing the absorption of atmospheric long-wave radiation from the atmosphere), the ice and snow will melt (reducing the reflection of the ground on the short-wave of the sun), and the surface will be further warmed, and global warming will be more significant. In addition to carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gases emitted by human activities are currently methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. The biggest impact on climate change is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has a long life span, and once it is released into the atmosphere, it can survive for up to 200 years and is therefore the most concerned. Human activities that emit greenhouse gases include all carbon dioxide emitted from the burning of fossil fuels. In fossil energy, coal has the highest carbon content, followed by oil and low natural gas. Coal gas in the process of fossil energy mining, carbon dioxide and methane emitted during natural gas leakage; carbon dioxide emitted from industrial processes such as cement, lime, chemical industry; methane emitted from ruminants such as paddy fields, cattle and sheep; land use change Reduced carbon dioxide absorption; methane and nitrous oxide produced in waste discharge. Since 1860, the global average temperature has risen by a factor of 掳C. The warmest years in the last hundred years have appeared after 1983. The increase in temperature in the northern hemisphere in the 20th century was the highest in the past 1000 years. According to the data, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly in the past 100 years. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has reached the highest value in the past 420,000 years. The distribution of precipitation has also changed in the past 100 years. Precipitation increased in the mainland, especially in the middle and high latitudes, and precipitation decreased in some areas such as Africa. In some areas, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (El Ni?o, drought, floods, thunderstorms, hail, storms, hot weather and sand curtains) increase. Answer the questions after reading the above: (1) What is the greenhouse effect? What are the main influencing factors? (2) The article mentions that 鈥淐hina is one of the sensitive and vulnerable areas of climate change in the world鈥? What do you think about the impact of the greenhouse effect? What should we do? 22.(9') (STS test questions) The 'STS' research group of a middle school in Nanjing went to the boiler workshop of a factory to carry out practical activities, focusing on the boiler water supply automatic device and fuel combustion. (1) Figure 12-4-1 For the cold water automatic control device, the small water tank is connected with the boiler. When the lever is in a horizontal state, the floating ball receives vertical buoyancy, and the plug B just hits the tap water inlet. It is known that OC=25cm, OD=1cm, and the plug B cross-sectional area. For 1cm2, how much is the tap water pressure (excluding the quality of the lever, connecting rod, plug, and float) (2) as shown in Figure 12-4-2, this is a factory exterior view, these high-temperature soot How is it formed? How does it affect our living environment? Questions in the new curriculum concept (30 points total) 23. (2') (路Changsha) (conceptual analysis) The calorific value of gasoline is 脳107J/ Kg, existing gasoline 500g, if burned half, the calorific value of the remaining gasoline is J / (4') (路 Haidian District) (innovative practice) West-East Gas Pipeline main line from the Tarim Basin in the south of the Lunian oil and gas field, eastward Passing through nine provinces and cities, and finally arriving in Shanghai, the total annual transmission of natural gas 脳 1010m3, The annual gas transmission quality is kg. If these natural gas is completely burned, the heat released is J. (The natural gas density in the pipeline is 6kg/m3, and the calorific value of natural gas is 5脳107J/kg) 25. (2') (路Chengdu class The stalk of crops is a valuable resource, but many farmers burned a lot in the farmland for convenience after harvesting. Please point out the harmful effects of burning a large amount of straw (two):
26.(6')(路Dalian)(Practical application) A middle school supplies students with boiling water. The boiler heats 200kg of water from 25掳C to 100掳C and burns 6kg of anthracite. [The specific heat capacity of water is 脳103J/(kg路掳C), the calorific value of anthracite is 脳107J/kg]. Try: (1) What is the heat absorbed by 200kg of water in the boiler? (2) What is the amount of heat that 6kg of anthracite is completely burned? (3) What is the efficiency of this boiler? 27. (4') (Guilin) ??The liquefied petroleum gas used in the household is stored in a steel tank. There is a valve switch on the top of the steel tank. The pressure inside the tank is greater than atmospheric pressure. Gas leaks are prone to poisoning, explosion and fire accidents. It is known that the calorific value of LPG is 脳107J/kg. When boiling water, only 60% of the heat released by LPG combustion is absorbed by water. Q: (1) How much liquefied petroleum gas should be completely burned when the water with a mass of 5 tons and an initial temperature of 20 掳C is heated to 100 掳C? (2) What measures should be taken to prevent accidents when liquefied petroleum gas leaks in steel tanks in the home are found? 28.(6')(路Gansu) (Computational Reasoning Question) After learning the electrical and thermal knowledge, Xiaohua learned through experiments that heating the 20掳C and 15kg water to 100掳C with electric kettle requires the electricity fee. If the same experiment is carried out with a gas stove, it is necessary to consume the gas of the element. The specific heat capacity of the water is known to be 脳103J/(kg路掳C). (1) If the same experiment is performed using a coal stove, the anthracite used for the combustion of the coal stove is known. The calorific value is 脳107J/kg. If the thermal energy utilization rate of the coal stove is 20%, and the price of anthracite is per kilogram, how much does it cost? (2) If an area can supply electricity, gas and coal at the same time, from the economy Comprehensive analysis with environmental protection, what kind of fuel would you recommend? Please clarify the reason. 29. (6') (Zhejiang Zhangzhou) In a military exercise, a fighter plane departs from the base and flies 900km to reach the destination. After launching the missile at high altitude, it quickly returns to the original base. The fighter is equipped with 4 turbofan engines. The thrust of a single engine is 75000N, and the maximum flight speed of the aircraft is about 1800km/h. If two engines are used at the same time, the aircraft can reach the maximum flight speed. And on Assuming that only linear motion in the sky is considered, during this flight, ask: (1) What is the flight time of the aircraft? (2) What is the power of the aircraft? (3) How much fuel is consumed by the aircraft (burning value 脳 107J/kg) Reference Answer: 1. Mq/%. The utilization rate of waste gas fuel. Heat transfer (energy) 11. Calorific value (1) 脳 108J (2) coal is the most serious air pollution; its main pollutants to the atmosphere are dust, sulfur dioxide and so on. 脳脳. machine.
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