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The ninth grade language (Shanghai Education Edition) The next volume of the book 'Commemoration of the Centennial of Voltaire's Death' lesson plan 1 download the ninth grade language (Shanghai Education Edition) the next volume The Speech of the 100th Anniversary of the Death of Ertai' The lesson 1 commemorates the 100th anniversary of the death of Voltaire. The first lesson of Hugo [learning goal] 1 Feel the passionate and romantic style of Hugo in reading.

2Understand the significance of the Enlightenment in Western history, and understand and appreciate the wonderful language.

3Understand Voltaire's outstanding contribution to human history and the great significance of enlightenment such as freedom, equality, peace and justice.

[Key Points and Difficulties] 1 Focus: Feel, understand, appreciate the poetic language, the passion and the brilliance of thought. 2 Difficulties: the great significance of enlightenment thoughts such as freedom, equality, harmony, peace and justice.

[Related Tips] 1 Voltaire (1694-1778), French enlightenment thinker, writer, philosopher. Born in Paris, a fair family.

Learn the law, go through business, be a court secretary and a diplomat. Knowledgeable, rich in writing, involving philosophy, history, literature, natural sciences, etc., nearly a hundred volumes. 2 Victor Hugo (1802-1885) is one of the leaders of the French Romantic literary movement and one of the greatest writers in France. His literary career spans 60 years, his main line of humanity is humanitarian, and he has a permanent charm for readers. The main works are: 'Notre Dame de Paris', 'Les Miserables', 'Marine Labor', 'Smile Face', '93' and so on. 3 Romanticism, one of the basic creative methods in the history of literature. Its basic principle is to reflect reality through performance ideals. The ideal life is regarded as a direct description of the object, showing an ideal world that exists in the author's mind to express dissatisfaction with reality. The expression techniques are often quite peculiar, the plot twists and turns is bizarre, the language is passionate and unrestrained, and the style is high and agile. 4 Enlightenment, the cultural education movement that promoted bourgeois ideology in the eighteenth century in Europe, pursued freedom in politics and academic thought, advocated science and technology, and promoted rationality as the basis of thought and behavior. The Enlightenment began in the United Kingdom and involved Germany, France, Russia, Italy and other countries. It was the most powerful in France. Because it was prepared for the French bourgeois revolution in 1789, it was named. 5 Thesis is a style that expresses opinions by discussing a certain problem or event. Read the dissertation to grasp: the argument of the article; the role of the argument (fact arguments, theoretical arguments); the basic methods of argumentation (for example, argumentation, citation argumentation, comparative argumentation, analogy, metaphorical reason); rigor of language (rigorous , meticulous, fine). [姝i煶姝e瓧] 闄▂n curse zzh貌u 鏌﹋i霉 Litigation s貌ng Rui ru矛 Yun y霉n 鎭?鑱?k猫 [word accumulation] Fall: Fall from high altitude. Wisdom: Smart, wise, wise and visionary. Implication: also contains, contains, contains. Override: Beyond (others); overwhelmed (other things). Feel the bully: Bardot to please the superiors, oppress the insults. At the time of dying: When the disease is about to die. Limin people: refers to the poor people. Fight alone: 鈥嬧€媐ight alone and in isolation. Angry and angry: I am angry because of hatred and shame. Peaking the pole: the metaphor reaches its peak. Awe-inspiring: respectful and admirable for being touched. Do your duty: Do your job with care and respect. Long-lasting: not stopping for a long time. [Structural Analysis] The first part (paragraph 1), the overall evaluation of Voltaire's extraordinary status in history, the contribution of the century. The second part (paragraphs 2-12), the lofty tribute: Looking back at history, Voltaire fought alone for the oppressed; praised personality, Voltaire had a wise smile. The third part (paragraphs 13-14) summarizes the full text and re-discloses Voltaire's contribution to humanity and inspires later generations. Or dichotomy: the first part (paragraphs 1-12), Voltaire's century contribution; the second part (paragraphs 13-14), Voltaire's epochal significance. The dichotomy, the second part of the dichotomy, is divided into two (paragraphs 2-9/10-12). [Beginner's lesson] 1 From Hugo's speech, you can understand how Voltaire has contributed to human civilization. Voltaire's contribution to mankind can be summarized into two parts: First, through the book and literary creation, make ideological contributions: cultivate conscience, educate human beings, and teach people to move toward freedom. Second, the intellectuals' conscience and responsibility to fight for human rights for the disadvantaged and to fight bravely. In short, Voltaire wrote an immortal article with a thunderous pen, revealing the brutality of the feudal monarchy, the judge oppressing the essence of the people, teaching the people to get rid of ignorance, overthrow the monarchy, and create a democratic and civilized France. 2 For example, Voltaire analyzes the conscience and responsibility of intellectuals, fights for human rights for vulnerable groups, and fights bravely. Voltaire struggled for the civilians who were oppressed and bullied, Sylvan, Mombay, Karas and Rabal. At that time, French social contradictions were sharp, religious cruelty, judicial injustice, and people's ignorance. In the face of the union of huge ugly forces, Voltaire began to fight 'alone.' Voltaire not only used the pen to promote the idea of 鈥嬧€?freedom, equality, and fraternity,' but also actively participated in the reality and defended the victims. It is the efforts of the enlightenment thinkers led by Voltaire that the seeds of thought are spread to the hearts of the world. A new era begins, and thought will be the highest ruling power of mankind. 3 Why did Hugo see the era of Voltaire life as the beginning of a 'new era'? In the early days of Voltaire's life, the ruling class oppressed the people, but the people did not dare to understand and resist, and the society was dark and corrupt. At this time, many Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire tried to evoke people's sense of resistance. Voltaire represents the beginning of 'a new era', because since then, 'the highest ruling power of mankind will be thought.' Thought replaces force, everything must be put before the 'rational' judges, people will never blindly obey authority and autocracy, the highest law of humanity is the law of justice and equality, as well as truth and conscience. In short, the 'new era' argument is a high evaluation of the significance of the Enlightenment. [Reading the text] [External homework] 1 Complete the 'study suggestions'; preview the 'thinking training' topic.

2 Learn about Hugo and the life of Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Diderot through the library and the Internet.

Second class [reading the text] [communicating knowledge] Voltaire (1694-1778), formerly known as Fran莽ois-Marie Arue, Voltaire is his pseudonym.

French enlightenment thinker, writer, philosopher.

Voltaire was the standard bearer of the French bourgeois enlightenment in the eighteenth century. He was hailed as 'the king of French thought', 'the best poet of France' and 'the conscience of Europe'.

Voltaire is not only philosophically outstanding, but also known for defending civil liberties, especially freedom of belief and justice.

Although the censorship system of his time is very strict, Voltaire still publicly supports social reform.

His arguments are ironic and often criticize the dogmas of the Christian Church and the French education system of the time.

He advocates Rousseau鈥檚 natural human rights and believes that life is free and equal. Everyone has the right to pursue survival and pursue happiness. This right is endowed by nature and cannot be deprived. This is the gift of human rights.

Voltaire was born in a wealthy middle-class family in Paris and was well educated since childhood.

His father is a legal notary and hopes that he will be a judge in the future, but he is interested in literature and later became a literati.

Charlie Louis Montesquieu (1689-1755), French enlightenment thinker, sociologist, is the founder of Western doctrine and legal theory.

born on a noble family on January 18, 1689, and died in Paris on February 10, 1755.

Former lawyer, President of the Bordeaux Parliament.

From 1728 to Austria, Hungary, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Britain and other countries for academic travel, field trips to their social and political systems and other situations.

Mondes is an encyclopedic scholar.

Achieved great achievements in academics and received high honors.

was selected as a member of the Academy of Sciences of Bordeaux, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, a member of the Royal Society, and a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin.

The main works are: 'The Persian Letters', 'The Causes of the Rise and Fall of Rome', 'The Spirit of the Law'.

Rousseau (1712-1778), French thinker and writer.

born June 28, 1712 in Geneva.

Ancestral home in France, believe in Protestantism.

After birth, his mother died, and his father was a watchmaker who was illusory.

Rousseau read with his father since childhood and has a strong interest in the novel.

Beginning to be an apprentice at the age of 15, he was out of the wandering because he couldn鈥檛 stand the rude treatment.

After changing to Catholicism, he was admitted to Mrs. De Valen.

A few times I left, I went to Paris, and because I didn鈥檛 want to be a slave, I returned to Mrs. De Valen.

After 1732, he lived a fairly peaceful life, had the opportunity to make up for academic shortcomings, systematically studied history, geography, astronomy, physics, chemistry, music, and Latin, and accepted Voltaire philosophy. The influence of thought.

Diderot (1713-1784), an 18th-century French materialist philosopher, an esthetician, a writer, an encyclopedia representative, and the first French editor of the Encyclopedia.

Diderot was born in Langgri, and he is well-versed in several languages, such as Italian and English. He is famous for his translation of Shaftesbury's 'Sexuality Study.'

Diderot, wrote a large number of books, in his 'Philosophy of Thoughts', 'Explanation of Nature', 'Strollers of the Skeptics', 'On the Tablet of the Blind', 'The Basis of Physiology', 'The Rama's 'Children', 'The Philosophical Principles of Matter and Movement', 'The Conversation of D'Alembert and Diderot', 'The Fatalist Jean Jacques and His Master', 'The Works Refuting the Repair of Ayr', etc. He expressed his materialistic philosophical thoughts; he expressed his aesthetics in his works such as 'The Study of the Roots and Nature of Beauty', 'On Drama Art', 'Talking Actor', 'Painting Theory', 'Genius' and other works. thought.

[Text Analysis] On May 30, 1778, Voltaire, the king of French thought, who taught people to move toward freedom, resigned.

A hundred years later, Hugo, the leader of the French Romantic Literature Movement, delivered a passionate speech.

The 'Commemoration of the Centennial of Voltaire's Death' is a high praise to the sages of mankind, a enthusiasm for the power of thought and personality, and a cry of justice and a call for conscience that human society always needs.

From this speech, we learned that Voltaire has made tremendous contributions to human civilization.

Voltaire's outstanding contribution to human history: nurture conscience, educate humanity, teach people to move toward freedom, fight for human rights for vulnerable people, and fight bravely.

In his speech, Hugo first analyzed the class status of French society at that time and the cruelty of religion, the injustice of the judiciary, the ignorance and misery of the people.

It was in the face of such a huge combination of ugly forces that Voltaire started fighting alone.

He not only used the pen as a weapon to promote the idea of 鈥嬧€?freedom, equality, fraternity', but also actively engaged in the concrete struggles of reality and defending one victim.

It is the efforts of the Enlightenment thinkers led by Voltaire that the seeds of thought are spread to the hearts of the world, and a new era begins, and thought will be the highest ruling power of mankind.

This article is a tribute to the thought master Voltaire.

The author also praised Voltaire from the great personality of Voltaire.

Great people have great things, not only in their great achievements, but also in their extraordinary personality.

In the second half of the article, Hugo praised Voltaire for his 'smart smile.'

Hugo said: 'Smile, it is Voltaire.'

Smile, which marks confidence, elegance and generosity, is a kind of mind, a realm.

Voltaire鈥檚 smile is a 鈥渟mart smile鈥?

Because it is a transcendence of anger and emotion, it is the forgiveness and peace of mind after seeing through all the filth.

It is this wise smile that illuminates truth, justice, kindness, and honesty, and promotes the eternal spiritual pursuit of equality, fraternity, reason, and equality.

'Rationality' is the core concept of the Western Enlightenment. The 'conscience' and 'thought' in the text are rational.

Before the Enlightenment, Westerners lived in the shadow of religious theocracy and secular royal power, and 'human dignity' was not established.

A generation of enlightenment thinkers led by Voltaire, subverting the 'legality' of religious theocracy and secular kingship, demanding that everything be put before the 'rational' judge.

By the early 19th century, Hugo鈥檚 generation still regarded 鈥渞ationality鈥?as supreme authority, so it called 鈥渢he highest authority of reason鈥?

In the fourth paragraph, I used the person to call the conversion, using the call to rhetoric, to express the author's enthusiasm and praise for Voltaire.

In paragraph 6, the metaphor of 'pen', the parallel sentence of paragraphs 8 and 9, etc., have profound connotations.

[Thinking Training] 1How to understand Voltaire's 'smile'? Voltaire's great personality power: smile.

Hugo said: 'Smile, it is Voltaire.'

Smile, which marks confidence, elegance and generosity, is a kind of mind, a realm.

Smile and face life, what you lose is your own troubles, and you win the whole world.

Voltaire鈥檚 smile is a 鈥渟mart smile鈥?

Because it is a transcendence of anger and emotion, it is the forgiveness and peace of mind after seeing through all the filth.

It is this wise smile that illuminates truth, justice, kindness, and honesty, and promotes the eternal spiritual pursuit of equality, fraternity, reason, and equality.

2 'He has exercised a function, he has completed a mission', what do 'functions' and 'missions' specifically mean? 鈥淔unction鈥?and 鈥渕ission鈥?specifically refer to 鈥渢eaching people to move toward freedom鈥?

3 Experience the profound implications of the following poetic language.

'He was cursed and blessed away: he was blessed by the past and blessed by the future.

Gentlemen, this is two wonderful forms of honor.

''The past' symbolizes darkness and evil, and 'future' symbolizes justice and light.

He was subjected to the 'curse of the past', which reflected that he and the darkness were inconsistent. He was enlightened by the world, so he said 'is a beautiful form of honor.'

'His cradle reflects the afterglow of the dynasty, his scorpion projecting the initial gleam of the Great Abyss.

' reflects both Voltaire's 'a century', summarizing the historical characteristics of France in the 18th century, and praising Volttain's functions and missions as a generation of masters in the history of human thought. /p>

4 How to understand the 'highest authority of reason'? 'Rationality' is the core concept of the Western Enlightenment. The 'conscience' and 'thought' in the text are rational.

Before the Enlightenment, Westerners lived in the shadow of religious theocracy and secular royal power, and 'human dignity' was not established.

It is the generation of enlightenment thinkers led by Voltaire that subverts the 'legality' of religious autonomy and secular royal power, and demands that everything be judged before the 'rational' judge.

And by the beginning of the 19th century, Hugo鈥檚 generation still regarded 鈥渞ationality鈥?as supreme authority, so it called 鈥渢he highest authority of reason鈥?

5 The author believes that 'Voltaire is not only a person, he is a century' What is the reason? Voltaire's life has gone through the era of dictatorship that has reached its peak and the revolutionary era that has just emerged in the morning. Voltaire is more important than the national leader. He is the leader of thought.

6' For each of us, the two aspects of progress are clearly shown.

'What is the 'two aspects'? First, be a person, exercise your rights - defend freedom, pursue truth.

The second is to be a citizen, to fulfill their duties--to maintain the dignity of the law and to prevent the power and ugly forces from trampling on human rights.

7 What are the main characteristics of the poetic language in this article? In stark contrast, such as: he was cursed and blessed away: by the curse of the past, blessed by the future.

A vivid metaphor, such as: 'A superstar has fallen.

'The death of Voltaire in a metaphorical way.

Exaggeration, such as: 'Since the night comes from the throne, let the light come out of the grave!' This passionate call shows the determination and belief that Hugo and the dark autocracy are inconsistent and struggle.

8 Voltaire is a great philosopher, and many of his famous sayings are circulated in later generations.

Please collect two or three sentences.

The most precious property of mankind - freedom.

I firmly oppose your point of view, but I swear to defend your right to speak.

The prophecy has always been made for the big man, and the small people are not necessary. A great cause requires an unwavering spirit. Strong confidence can make ordinary people make amazing careers. No matter how high the talent is, he still needs to learn the skills to play those talents. Talent is continuous patience. A family has no books, just like this room has no windows. The library is a treasure trove of human knowledge and fallacy. Reading a book without thinking, you will feel a lot of yourself. Think more about reading a book, and you will feel that you don't understand more. [External homework].


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