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2017 autumn geography teaches the eighth grade on the booklet exercises data download 2017 autumn geography teaches the eighth grade on the book exercise problem fourth section natural disaster knowledge points a common natural disaster 1. Above The four common meteorological disasters are a drought, b flood, c typhoon, and d cold wave. 2. The three common geological disasters in the above picture are a earthquake, b landslide, and c debris flow.

Knowledge Point 2 China's natural disasters frequently occur in the distribution of major meteorological disasters in China 1. Fill in the legendary names in the map, such as the flood-prone area, the drought-prone area, the cold wave path, and the typhoon path.

The answer is abbreviated.

2. China's flood disaster-prone areas are mainly distributed in the southeast coastal areas; drought disasters are widely distributed and concentrated in North China; typhoons mainly affect China's southeast coastal areas, often landing in Fujian, Taiwan, Guangdong, Hainan and other provinces The cold wave has a wide range of influences, and the vast areas except the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, Taiwan Island, and Hainan Island are affected.

Distribution of major geological disasters in China 3. Fill in the legendary names “seismic belt”, “debris flow distribution area” and “landslide-prone area” at appropriate locations in the map. The answer is abbreviated. Knowledge points A common natural disaster 1. Guidance No. 09434086 The following phenomena or events are natural disasters (B) A. Chemical plant wastewater leakage, paddy field pollution, pungent smell B. A sudden hail A lot of watermelons in the field were smashed. C. A tourist violated the regulations, smoking in the forest area, throwing cigarette butts, causing forest fires. D. The billboards upstairs were blown off by a strong wind and squatted on the two cars downstairs. 2. The hazards caused by natural disasters are (B)1 resource destruction 2 environmental pollution 3 property loss 4 casualties 5 soil erosion A.123B.134C.234D.3453. China's geological disasters mainly include (A)A. earthquake, Landslides, mudslides B. Dust storms, mudslides, typhoons C. Earthquakes, cold waves, mudslides D. Debris flows, landslides, floods and droughts 4. Guidance No. 09034087 The following natural disasters, belonging to meteorological disasters are (A) 1 flood 2 drought 3 typhoons 4 debris flow 5 cold wave A.1235B.1234C.1345D.134 knowledge point 2 China's natural disasters frequently 5. China's drought disasters mainly In the (D) A. Western Region B. Eastern Region C. South China Region D. North China Region 6. Guidance No. 09434088 below the narrative of China's meteorological disasters, the correct is (B) A. China's precipitation season changes, interannual The change is small, and it is not easy to cause droughts and floods. B. Drought and flood is the most influential meteorological disaster in China. C. Typhoon only affects China's Guangdong, Taiwan, Hainan, and Fujian provinces. D. The cold wave only occurs in winter, and most of China The region has a huge impact. 7. The areas with severe droughts and floods are mostly distributed in (C)A. sparsely populated areas B. economically backward areas C. eastern plains areas D. western mountains and basins 8. common natural disasters in mountainous areas Excludes (C)A. Collapse B. Landslide C. Intrinsic D. Debris flow 9. Guide No. 09434089 When developing and utilizing mountainous areas, natural disasters should be prevented and avoided (D) A. Collapse, earthquake, debris flow B Typhoon, landslide, debris flow C. Earthquake, landslide, debris flow D. Collapse, landslide, debris flow 10. The following natural disasters are strongly associated with earthquakes: (A) 1 typhoon 2 landslide 3 drought 4 cold wave 5 mudslide A.25B. 245C.123D.123 511. Instructor No. 0943090 Debris flow is a geological disaster with great destructive power, and the geological disasters often accompanied by it (C)1 Volcano 2 earthquake 3 Mountain landslide 4 collapse A.12B.23C.34D.14 Knowledge points Three disaster prevention and mitigation 12. The following are some common methods of disaster mitigation and mitigation. You think that the most unsafe method is (C)A. At home (building), choose a small space that is not easy to collapse, such as bathroom and toilet. B. In the classroom, you should hide under a solid desk and grab the table legs. C. In the wild, hide at the foot of the mountain, under the cliff, encounter landslides, landslides, run in the direction of the mountains. D. Try to use quilts when avoiding. Pillows, school bags or other soft objects to protect the head 13. May 12th of each year is China's 'Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Day', which is conducive to promoting the popularization of national disaster prevention and mitigation knowledge and improving people's ability to avoid disasters and save themselves, to minimize The damage caused by disasters. How to avoid earthquakes when encountering an earthquake in a building (D) A. Jumping down B. Hiding under the window C. Taking the elevator down the stairs D. Covering the head with a pillow, hiding near the bed or under the table 14. Guide No. 09434091 disaster, the disaster prevention measures taken by the individual, the correct one is (C) A. The mudslide is coming, running to the low ground. B. The earthquake is coming, jumping off the building quickly. C. Typhoon comes, closing doors and windows D. Drought disaster When reducing the amount of drinking water 15. Guide No. 09434092 (2016·Jiangsu Jieyang simulation) Among the following natural disasters, it is the (G)A. The flood in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River B. The typhoon C. Yungui area in the southeast coastal area Debris flow D. Spring drought in North China 16. (2016·Hunan Yiyang simulation) China's flood and drought disasters are relatively frequent, mainly due to (B) A. Winter wind activity is unstable B. Summer wind activity is unstable C. Crustal activity is not Stable D. Ocean current movement instability 17. Guide No. 09034093 (2016·Dongying Dongying Simulation) The narrative of China's drought and flood disasters is correct (D) A. Drought is not related to the uneven distribution of precipitation in China. B. Northwest China The drought is serious, and there will be no drought in the eastern monsoon region. C. Drought and flood disasters only occur in summer and autumn. D. Floods Disasters are one of the many disasters in the eastern plains of China. 18. (2016·Guangdong Zhaoqing Simulation) Among the following provincial administrative regions, typhoon landings are mainly concentrated in (A)A. Guangdong, Taiwan, Hainan, Fujian B. Jilin, Liaoning Heilongjiang, Tianjin C. Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan D. Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi 19. (2016·Guangzhou Huizhou simulation) Narrative about China's natural disasters, the correct is (A) A. Typhoon is mainly distributed in B. Floods and drought distribution areas in the southeast coastal areas will not overlap. C. Northwestern areas are the most severe drought areas. D. Landslides and mudslides are concentrated in the Northeast Plain. 20. (2016·Manzhou Lanzhou Simulation) Natural disasters occur frequently, disaster prevention and mitigation work Very important. The following statements are incorrect: (B) A. Protection forests can effectively defend against wind and sand disasters B. Using remote sensing satellites and other technologies can prevent natural disasters. C. In order to be able to supply materials to the disaster areas in time, China has built a large number of disaster relief materials reserves. Center D. When natural disasters come, individuals must also have a certain self-rescue method. Guidance number 09034094 (2016·Shaanxi Shangluo simulation) continuous heavy rains cause flash floods, suspended with large solid debris and rich in silt and clay. The mud ruined the road in a short time, drowned the village, and blocked the river. According to the materials, complete the 21st to 22nd questions. 21. The natural disaster described in the material is (A) A. Debris flow B. Landslide C. Tsunami D. Collapse 22. The following conditions can prevent the formation of the above natural disasters: (D) A. Slope steep valley deep B. Rock loose C Heavy rain continuous D. Vegetation dense 23. Guide number 09034095 (2016· Shandong Laiwu simulation) read the map, complete the following questions. (1) The main meteorological disasters in China are floods (filling in “floods” or “earthquakes”), droughts, typhoons and cold waves. (2) The drought disasters in China are mainly distributed in North China (filling in “North China” or “Northwest”) areas. (3) China's flood disasters are mainly distributed in the area south of the Qinling-Huaihe line (filling in “South” or “North”). (4) China's typhoon disasters are mainly distributed in the southeastern coastal areas (filling in the “northwest inland” or “southeast coastal”) areas. (5) The cold wave affecting China mainly comes from the northern continent (filling in the “Northern Continent” or “Southern Ocean”) and the ice and snow. (6) When an earthquake occurs, if conditions permit, it should be evacuated to a safe open area in a timely and orderly manner; if it cannot be evacuated in time, you can temporarily hide in the corner of the small open space (fill in the 'small open' or 'large open') . 24. (2016·Zhongshan Zhongshan Simulation) China is a country with frequent natural disasters. The following figure shows the distribution of some meteorological disasters in China in July of the previous year. Read the picture and complete the following questions. (1) In the Tarim Basin, the main meteorological disaster is a drought; the limiting factor affecting agricultural development in the region is the shortage of water resources. (2) The main reason for frequent droughts and floods in China is the uneven distribution of precipitation seasons and large interannual variations (unstable monsoon activity). In addition to the meteorological disasters listed in the picture, the main meteorological disasters affecting China are cold waves and typhoons. (3) When the flood arrives, how should we avoid the risk-avoiding answer to the height, or climb to a high place to temporarily avoid; actively contact the local flood control and rescue department to seek rescue; build a life raft to escape; avoid the live wire Rod, avoid being hurt by snake bites. (Other reasonable answers are also available) 25. (2016·Qiqihar, Heilongjiang) China's common natural disasters include meteorological disasters and geological disasters. The following geological disasters are: (D) A. Drought B. Cold wave C. Typhoon D. Seismic guide Student ID 09434096 (2016·Weifang, Shandong) cold wave is a common meteorological disaster in China. Read a cold wave path map in January 2016 and complete questions 26~27. 26. This cold wave passes through the provinces (cities, districts) in China. (A) A. Inner Mongolia, Ning, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi B. Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Hunan, Guangdong C. Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Henan, Yunnan, Guizhou D. Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Yunnan 27. The main reason for Hainan Island to be almost unaffected by the cold wave is (B) A. The terrain is high and cold air is difficult to reach B. The latitude is low, away from the winter wind source C. Four faces the sea, and is greatly affected by the ocean. D. The forest coverage rate is high. The wind speed guide number 09034997 (2016·Qingdao Qingdao) is read to explain the causes of meteorological disasters in a certain area of ??China. 28~29 questions. 28. The meteorological disaster shown in the figure is (C)A. Cold wave B. Sandstorm C. Spring drought D. Flooding 29. The most likely area of ??the meteorological disaster is (D) A. Sichuan Basin B. Northeast Plain C Yangtze River Delta D. North China Plain 30. (2016·Liaocheng, Shandong) The following picture shows the frequency of occurrence of major meteorological disasters in some areas of China. Among them, the frequency of occurrence in the northwest is (D)A. Hong B. Dr. C. Typhoon D. Cold wave 31. (2016·Lianyungang, Jiangsu) Since the spring and summer of 2016, the geological disasters caused by continuous heavy rain in parts of southern China are (D)A. Typhoon, flood, B. volcano, earthquake C. Dust storm D. Landslides and mudslides 32. (2016·Cangzhou, Hunan) Since the spring of 2016, many provinces in southern China have caused heavy rains such as floods and landslides due to continuous heavy rains. The following reasonable measures for the occurrence of some natural disasters are reasonable (D) A. Holding high-voltage power poles on the roadside when the earthquake occurs. B. Thunderstorms are hiding in the wild under the trees. C. Debris flows occur along the debris flow. Movement direction evacuation D. When being trapped indoors by the flood, move to a high place, waiting for rescue 33. (2016·Yiyang, Hunan) When natural disasters come, take appropriate measures to effectively avoid disasters. The following disaster avoidance methods are wrong (C)A. When an earthquake occurs, it should be promptly and orderly evacuated to a safe open space. B. When an earthquake occurs, if it cannot be evacuated in time, you can temporarily hide in the corner of the small open space. When a debris flow occurs, it should immediately flow to the open flat land in the direction of the debris flow. D. When the debris flow occurs, run on the slope perpendicular to the flow direction of the debris flow. 34. (2015·Harbin, Heilongjiang) Read the materials and complete the following questions. . Material 1 Among all natural disasters in China, meteorological disasters accounted for 71%, earthquake disasters accounted for 8%, marine disasters accounted for 7%, agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry accounted for 6%, and other disasters accounted for 8%. Material 2 From 1880 to 2012, the global average temperature increased by °C. Changes in the rise of 2 °C have led to an increase in extreme thermal events, global glaciers continue to decrease, and sea levels continue to rise. The damage caused by more than 2 °C is population poverty, population health is impaired, the risk of species extinction increases, floods, storm surges and other risks increase, crops are reduced, and renewable surface water and groundwater are reduced. Material 3 The South-to-North Water Transfer Project in 8 provinces and autonomous regions solved the water crisis of more than 100 million people in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and Henan provinces. The 800,000 hectares of cultivated land along the coast can be self-flowing, and the flood control in the Han River is raised to 100 years. Material 4 The economic loss caused by smog in China in one year was 6.7204 trillion yuan, equivalent to 100% of GDP. For example, smog weather makes tomatoes and peppers mature at least 30 days late, reducing solar power generation by about 80% over sunny days. (1) According to the first material, the largest proportion of all natural disasters in China is meteorological disasters. (2) According to the second item, the damage caused to the population and crops by the global average temperature rise of more than 2 °C: population poverty, population health damage, increased risk of species extinction, increased risk of floods and storm surges, crop yield reduction Renewable surface water and groundwater are reduced. (3) According to the third material, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project solved the water crisis of more than 100 million people in the four provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and Henan. (4) According to the fourth item, an example of the impact of haze weather on life and economy: the haze weather makes tomatoes and peppers mature at least 30 days late, which reduces solar power generation by about 80%.

35. Instructor No. 09434098 A middle school geography team intends to explore the reasons for the frequent occurrence of mudslides in the Southwest. Please complete the inquiry process together.

Exploration Topic: Reasons for the Causes of Debris Flows in Southwest China: Graphic Analysis Methodology Materials: China's Debris Flow Distribution Map The world's major seismic belt distribution maps try to explore: (1) Seismic belts and mudslides in the southwestern region are located in seismic zones, earthquakes Frequent, the rock is broken and there are many crumbs, which is the material condition of the debris flow.

(2) Topography and Debris Flow The southwestern region is located at the junction of the first and second terraces of China's topography. It is mountainous, with high mountains and deep valleys and large surface undulations. This is the basic condition for the occurrence of debris flows.

(3) Climate and Debris Flow The southwestern region is located in the monsoon climate zone. The precipitation in summer is concentrated and there is heavy rain, which is the inducing condition for the occurrence of debris flow.

(4) Human activities and human activities such as deforestation, deforestation and land reclamation, which reduce surface vegetation and increase the intensity and frequency of debris flow.

Inductive summary: The occurrence of debris flows is related to natural causes such as earthquakes, topography, and climate, as well as human activities.

Migration applications: (1) Human planting and planting (or afforestation) activities can reduce the intensity and frequency of debris flow.

(2) The solid line on the right is the contour line, and the dotted line is the flow path of the debris flow. If the visitor is located at the M point, the picture shows 1234 four escape routes, the safest of which is the 2 lines.

(3) Taiwan is also a frequent area of ??debris flow in China. Please combine the findings to analyze the natural causes of the frequent occurrence of mudslides in Taiwan.

The answer is that Taiwan is in the Pacific Rim earthquake zone and there are many earthquakes; Taiwan's terrain is dominated by mountains and the surface is undulating; Taiwan is subtropical and tropical monsoon climate, with heavy rainfall and heavy rains in summer.

(The meaning is similar) 36. Guide number 09434099 Compose a valley model with loose soil, as shown below, complete the following questions.

(1) Sprinkling water on the slope of the soil valley model, the phenomenon that occurs at A is that the water flows down the sediment.

(2) If the intensity of the sprinkling water is increased, a relatively large water flow is formed on the slope surface, and the phenomenon occurring at A is that a large amount of sediment material is accompanied by the water flow.

(3) By comparison, it is found that the phenomenon occurring at A is similar to that of B (filling in 'high' or 'low').

(4) The phenomenon occurring at A is a phenomenon similar to a mudslide.

The natural causes that affect the formation of debris flows are steep mountainous terrain, heavy rains or persistent heavy rainfall, and slopes with large amounts of loose debris.

(5) If the plant is covered with vegetation (turf or moss) on the slope at B, and then a large stream of water is sprinkled on the slope, the change in the flow at A is no longer accompanied by the absence of vegetation. Sand.

(6) It can be seen that good vegetation can reduce the occurrence of debris flow.

The end of the chapter special training topic 1 China's topography 1. Read the following picture, the river is rich in water resources (C) A.12B.34C.13D.242. Guide number 09434100 China introduced to the world at the same time Tropical, subtropical, temperate, sub-frozen flora and fauna, which areas do you think can make these animals and plants survive at the same time (C)A. Changbai Mountain Area B. Tianshan Mountain Area C. Hengduan Mountain Area D. Taihang Mountain Area 3. The topographical influence, the mude flow is easy to occur in the following figure (B) A. Area A B. Area B. Area D. Ding area. China's climate spring, the phenomenon of river flow increasing significantly is called spring flood, river appears The reasons for Chunyu are diverse.

Read the Harbin Climate Data Sheet (this data can also represent the overall climate characteristics of Northeast China) and the annual flow curve of the Songhua River Harbin Hydrological Station, and complete the 4th to 6th questions.

Monthly 123456 temperature/°C-precipitation/mm 789101112 temperature/°C precipitation/mm The lowest month of Harbin temperature and the month with the most precipitation are (B) month, July month, August month, January Month, August 5. According to the information in the figure, the following analysis of the hydrological characteristics of the Songhua River near Harbin is correct (A) A. The season with the highest flow rate is basically consistent with the regional rainy period B. There is no ice formation in winter C. The seasonal variation of the flow is not obvious. D. There is a phenomenon of water cut in winter. 6. The figure shows that the Songhua River has obvious spring floods. The reason may be most (D) A. The artificial reservoir will keep the abundant precipitation in winter, in early May. Open the gate to release water.

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