casino club coups:casino,club,coups,his,body,fla:On his body, a flame began to emerge (1) Compilation Ideas The primary school language experiment textbook published by Beijing Normal University Press is based on the Chinese Language Curriculum Standard (Experimental Draft). Give full pla

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(1) Compilation Ideas The primary school language experiment textbook published by Beijing Normal University Press is based on the Chinese Language Curriculum Standard (Experimental Draft). Give full play to the role and advantages of the normal university, give full play to the academic research strength of Beijing Normal University, and link the normal education with basic education, academic research in universities and teaching practice in primary and secondary schools, and improve the scientific level of textbook writing in China. Providing a set of modern primary school Chinese textbooks to contribute to the improvement of the language quality of the whole nation is a basic purpose of writing this set of textbooks.

Before writing, the Chinese Language Textbook Writing Group of Beijing Normal University invited well-known experts and scholars to do relevant basic theoretical research work for the preparation of this set of experimental textbooks.

The research results include: 'Study on the development of the grade text table for primary school Chinese textbooks' by Mr. Shu Hua, Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, and Wu Xinchun, teacher of the Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, 'Research on Reading Interests of Children in Primary Schools', Capital Normal University The Chinese Department of Zhang Dacheng's 'Study on the Teaching of Chinese Phonetic Alphabet' and the Chinese Department of the Chinese Department of Beijing Normal University, Wang Quangen's 'Study on the Selection of Children's Literature and Primary School Chinese Textbooks'. These findings provide strong academic support for the preparation of experimental textbooks. Based on the spirit of the 'Basic Education Curriculum Reform Guidelines (Trial)' and 'Chinese Curriculum Standards (Experimental Draft)', summarizing the experience and lessons of the previous Chinese textbooks, through basic research and research on the problems existing in previous Chinese courses, The preparation of experimental textbooks tries to solve three problems: one is to learn the interest of the language, let the students like the language; the second is to learn the language, let the students learn the language; the third is the unity of humanity and instrumentality, let the language learn The process is not only the process of learning the language and the process of learning modern cultural knowledge, but also the process of enlightening the mind and edifying the sentiment. 'Leading of interest, learning to learn, overall advancement, and cultural accumulation' is the general guiding ideology of this set of experimental textbooks. “Leading of interest” refers to changing the current situation of textbooks, complex, old, and biased book knowledge, strengthening the connection between textbook content and student life and modern social development, and paying attention to students' interest in learning. (In order to bring the distance between the textbook and the students closer, and improve the students' interest in learning, the textbook has designed two children's images of Tintin and Dongdong. These two children's images run through the book, and learn together with the students to grow together.) 'Learn to learn' It is a phenomenon that changes too much emphasis on receptive learning, rote memorization, and mechanical training. It advocates autonomous learning, cooperation, and inquiry in the language learning mode under the guidance of teachers, so that students can master the appropriate attitudes, habits, strategies, and methods of language learning. Gradually learn to study independently. Teachers should encourage students' independent opinions, highlight students' innovative spirit and ability, cultivate students' aspirations and ability for lifelong learning, and cultivate students' sense of social and natural responsibility. “Overall advancement” refers to comprehensively improving students' language literacy and comprehensively cultivating students' literacy, reading ability, writing ability and oral communication ability. 'Cultural accumulation' refers to allowing students to inherit the development of Chinese culture and absorb the nutrition of human progressive culture while mastering the language as a tool and acquiring language skills. According to the spirit of the guidelines and curriculum standards, with reference to the basic research results, this set of textbooks mainly considers the needs of three aspects when selecting texts. The first is the student's physical and mental development and cognitive rules. In line with the psychological characteristics of students at all ages and the requirements of recognition, reading and writing, the text and the student's experience world and the imagination of the world are strengthened, and the students' innovative ability and innovative spirit are cultivated subtly. The first is the need for the development of modern society. The selection of texts must conform to the spirit of the times, reflect the ideas and concepts of modern society, and in particular reflect the concern for human beings, the natural environment and global awareness, as well as the understanding and respect for pluralistic values. The third is the inheritance and development of the national excellent culture. Attach importance to the culture of 'selection of gold', pay attention to arousing the national consciousness of students and strengthen the cultivation of humanistic spirit. To this end, five principles for the preparation of texts have been developed: The content is exquisite in form, which not only meets the needs of students in the lower grades of primary school, but also has a certain humanistic spirit. 2. It reflects the students' physical and mental development rules, is close to the students' life, connects with the students' experience world and imagines the world, and subtly cultivates students' imagination and innovation spirit. 3. In line with the spirit of the times, it reflects the ideas and concepts of modern society, and enables students to be influenced by patriotism, collectivism, and environmental protection in the process of learning texts. 4. It reflects the essence of national excellent culture and world progressive culture, and enables students to be infected and educated by China's excellent traditional culture. 5. Poetry and prose, modern and ancient, Chinese and foreign, subject texts and self-reading texts maintain an appropriate proportion. The first grade book has been used in the first batch of national curriculum reform experiments. Teachers and parents in the experimental area generally believe that the texts in the textbooks better deal with the relationship between tradition and modernity, literary beauty and interest in learning. The source of the text is broadly divided into the following categories: (1) traditional articles such as 'Little Boat', 'Crow Drinking Water', 'Man has two treasures', etc.; (2) Choosing the latest contemporary children Literary articles, such as 'Sun', 'The Dream of Little Fish', etc.; (3) Introducing excellent articles of Hong Kong and Taiwan and foreign language textbooks, such as 'Learning to Write', 'The Turtle Who Wants to Fly', 'Masha' Growing up, etc.; (4) self-editing texts according to the needs of teaching, such as 'Winter and Winter Reading Texts', 'Little Hens Planting Rice', 'Winter is a Magician', etc. For such texts, the writers should read the collective words. Repeated solicitation of opinions, repeated revisions; (5) excellent and suitable for children's ancient poetry, such as '锄禾' and so on. From the perspective of genre, in the main text of this volume, there are 17 modern children's songs, 6 fairy tales, and 4 ancient poems. Compared with traditional textbooks, this book has selected more “new” articles in order to make students learn the language more interested. There are 16 units in the first grade, including 33 main texts, 12 modern poems for students to read and memorize, and 8 ancient poems. In the main text, there are 11 poems, poems, lyrics, 5 prose essays, and 17 stories and fairy tales. In the selected texts, there are 11 'traditional articles' and 22 new 'new' texts, such as 'Yuan Lan Festival', 'Water Song', 'Spring Hand', 'Plug', 'Rain Bell', 'Good Things' 'Wait. The second grade has a total of 16 units, including 27 main texts, 10 modern poems for students to read and memorize, and 6 ancient poems. In the main text, there are 9 poems, poems, lyrics, 5 essays, and 13 stories and fairy tales. In the selected texts, there are 5 'traditional articles' and 22 new 'new' texts, such as 'Flame Maple Leaf', 'The Motherland is in My Heart', 'Beyond the Skills', 'Special Examination', 'Cute Dolls' ', 'New Year's Film' and so on. This set of textbooks is based on the requirements of the curriculum standards and the research results of Shuhua's 'Primary School Chinese Textbook Grades and Words' and years of experience in curriculum reform experiments. It is considered that the Chinese characters used in children's reading and assignments are not completely consistent. The cognitive rules followed by writing are also different. From the beginning time, word count, word selection, guiding methods, evaluation, etc., we try to arrange the teaching sequence of literacy and writing as scientifically as possible. The number of literacy is “not guaranteed under the top”. The first grade book requires students to write 150 words and read 350 words. The first grade book requires students to write 230 words and read 430 words.

The main literacy channels used in this set of textbooks are: (1) to recognize some pictographs and meaning words by means of the connection between Chinese characters and pictures; (2) literacy in the language environment with literacy; (3) phonography; 4) Literacy in life; (5) Verb literacy, literacy through modern children's favorite children's songs.

Simplify the name of strokes in Chinese characters, and cancel the teaching of strokes such as “transverse bend” and “cross-fold”, which are directly called “going children” and “words and children”.

As for the stroke order, follow the principle of “strict and not dead” and relax the requirements.

The names of strokes and radicals respect the teacher's idioms without error.

This set of textbooks has adjusted the content and position of Pinyin teaching. Put the Chinese Pinyin teaching in the fifth to eighth units of the first grade book, and change the arrangement of learning the pinyin from the first book of the previous textbook. Let the students first The learning part represents pictographs of Chinese character culture and some common words.

The purpose of this is to solve the problem that students learn to learn Pinyin from the beginning, and feel boring and difficult. Secondly, it highlights the characteristics of Chinese characters and allows students to initially perceive Chinese characters culture. Third, it solves kindergartens and The problem of primary school convergence.

This practice has been very effective after the first course reform experiments.

The words before the teaching of Pinyin, 'Chinese Language and Earth' also marked Pinyin, the purpose is to adapt to the needs of different teachers and students, teachers can adjust the time of Pinyin teaching according to the needs of teaching.

In the teaching of pinyin, properly arrange reading, memorizing and other content, learn Chinese characters while learning Pinyin, and strive to promote each other.

According to the curriculum standards, this set of textbooks reduces the requirements of Pinyin teaching and reduces difficulties.

The first grade of the first volume uses the main text to not pinpoint pinyin, the words in the word, 'language world', and the way to recite the pinyin.

(2) Arrangement system and teaching material system This set of textbooks adopts the theme unit layout method, first determines the subject areas throughout the 1-6 grades, and then determines the theme units of each grade and each volume, each theme unit There are usually two or three main texts (choose works of various types and genres related to the theme) and a 'language world'.

'Language World' includes exercises to consolidate and expand, classroom and extracurricular activities, 'golden keys' (learning habits, methods, strategies, etc.), 'self-tests' (self-examination awareness, habits and methods) item.

A theme unit forms a relatively complete unit of study.

This arrangement breaks through the shackles of the text-based style of Chinese teaching, which enables Chinese teaching to extend beyond the classroom, and extends to students' lives, school activities, other courses and society, which is conducive to students' continued interest in learning. At the same time, the new word recurrence rate is higher, which is conducive to timely consolidation of the new words of the students.

The layout of the 'Theme Unit' was widely acclaimed in the first course reform experiments.

This set of Chinese textbooks includes student textbooks, teacher teaching books, student simultaneous reading libraries, writing books, teaching wall charts, student literacy cards, teaching literacy cards, audio tapes, student growth manuals and other materials.

A variety of teaching materials together constitute an organic, open textbook system.

The teaching aids work hard to embody the concept of the new teaching assistant, taking the students' self-reading materials as the main body, changing the status quo of the 'test questions' and reducing the content of mechanical training to a minimum.

Teacher's teaching book puts the content of student textbooks in the center of the layout, and reminds them of teaching points, teaching difficulties, teaching suggestions and activity organization suggestions, providing teachers with as much detailed teaching guidance and teaching choices as possible, but try not to interfere with teachers. The design of the teaching link leaves more room for teachers to use the teaching materials creatively.

(3) Teaching Suggestions Textbooks are the most important part of the curriculum content. Textbook reform is an important part of the basic education curriculum reform, but not all.

This basic education curriculum reform is a systematic and comprehensive reform, which is a comprehensive change including training objectives, management system, curriculum content, learning methods, and evaluation methods.

On the one hand, this set of textbooks strives to embody the spirit of curriculum reform, such as the cultivation of language skills that are urgently needed by the times, the infiltration of new values, and the innovation of language learning methods. On the other hand, teachers only have an in-depth understanding of curriculum reform. The spirit of the team, especially on the basis of profound changes in the training objectives, can be well grasped and used.

Traditional Chinese teaching, in teaching materials, teachers, students, teaching materials are often in the core dominance, teachers are often in the implementation of teaching materials, to convey teaching materials, to preach the status of teaching materials, is required to 'speak deep and thoroughly' textbooks, while students Passively accept teachers' lectures on teaching materials.

One of the tasks of this curriculum reform is to 'liberate students and liberate teachers'. The curriculum standards strive to use teaching materials as part of the curriculum resources, and advocate 'to give full play to the initiative and creativity of both teachers and students in teaching', 'Language Teaching should be carried out in the course of dialogues such as the life of the teacher, giving teachers and students more freedom, making the relationship between teaching materials, teachers and students more equal and democratic.

Teachers have greater confidence in the use of textbooks and the flexibility to develop a variety of curriculum resources. In turn, this also puts higher demands on teachers, requiring teachers to have the qualities to distinguish the quality of the textbooks. The ability to select and develop course resources.

Of course, due to various conditions, there is still a process to really implement this idea, but this is a new beginning.

The preparation of this set of textbooks leaves a flexible space for teachers to leave a space for independent learning and independent thinking.

In the summer of 2001, under the unified organization of the editorial committee of the National Curriculum Standard Experimental Textbook of Beijing Normal University, the Chinese Textbook Writing Team of Beijing Normal University conducted training for all the first batch of experimental teachers.

One of the main contents of the training is to help teachers understand the ideas of Chinese curriculum reform, and help teachers to grasp the relationship between teaching materials, teachers and students in a more equal and democratic identity in curriculum reform.

In the training method, use the participation and discussion methods as much as possible; in the training language, try to avoid the imperative vocabulary such as “must”, “must”, “must not” and greatly mobilize. The teachers and teaching and research personnel of the vast experimental areas participated in the enthusiasm of curriculum reform.

Curriculum reform is a complex project. The transformation of teachers' concepts and the transformation of teachers' roles and teacher behaviors are not completed by training in just a few days.

In the course of the curriculum reform experiment, the Chinese textbook writing group of Beijing Normal University has written a group of experimental areas to return to visit, the 'Campus Reform Experiment Newsletter' (hosted by the Basic Education Curriculum Research Center of Beijing Normal University), website (), seminars, and writing In the form of a group hotline, we will strive to achieve direct communication between the writing team and the teachers in the experimental area, and help teachers discover and study problems encountered during the experiment.

In short, establish an equal and democratic relationship between teachers, students, and textbooks. Based on this, explore the rules of student learning, develop various curriculum resources, and try new forms of curriculum.

Our language curriculum reform will be successful, and we will be able to cultivate more and better new people in modern society.

Let us work together to contribute to improving the quality of Chinese language teaching in primary schools and to improving the cultural quality of future nationals.

◆[2005-05-25] 〖You are browsing the article provided by Laobaixiao Online.


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